Student guide Faculty of Engineering A.Y. 2008/09

Industrial Chemical Equipment and Technologies
Aim of the course
Students will acquire the fundamentals ideas relating to both chemical processes (thermochemistry, kinetics and environmental compatibility) and process engineering (unit operations). A general overview of the chemicals industry, covering its economic significance, raw materials, end products, and chemical and energy aspects, will be followed by an in depth illustration of the main types of chemical equipment, with reference to the concepts of mass and heat transfer, which are at the root of chemical plant engineering. The ideas will be presented in the context of industrial production, safety and industrial organisation, and applied to chemical production units along with sizing criteria and all other aspects of managing a project.
Industrial chemistry part
Production lines and economic aspects of the Italian and global chemicals industry
- Raw materials and products of the inorganic and organic chemicals and petrochemicals industry.
- Thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis applied to the study of chemical processes.
- Review of thermodynamics, kinetics and catalysis.
- Analysis of the safety of a chemical plant (HAZOP). Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapours: elements of the theory of the flammability of gas mixtures, explosions, safety devices, flammability characteristics for saturated hydrocarbons. - Hazardousness of chemical substances. Safety data sheets
Protection of the environment. Environmental regulations. Principal technologies for the treatment of emissions into the atmosphere and liquid effluents.
Energy production systems. Analysis of systems with low environmental impact.
Plant engineering part.
Phase equilibria. Phase rule for systems with one, two and many components. Equilibrium diagrams for binary and ternary systems;
Heat transfer operations. Theory of heat transfer. Heat transfer coefficients and their determination. Selection of the equipment. Unit operations in a chemical plant. Sizing concepts and analysis.
Industrial chemical instrumentation. - Elements of industrial instrumentation. Measures of temperature, pressure, flow rate, level, composition. Interpretation of process and P&I diagrams.
Elements of cost engineering. Economic calculations associated with process units. - Capital costs, running costs: their time-based comparison.
Applied part
Raw materials for the chemicals industry: Natural gas, petroleum, coal and other raw materials. Olefins from steam-cracking of hydrocarbon fractions. Hydrogen and gases produced from partial oxidation and reforming of hydrocarbons. - Methanol from CO and H2. Formaldehyde and derived products. Natural and synthetic polymers. Polyols for urethane resins. Designing a new chemical plant. Analysis of the design stages applied to a specific example. Writing the operating manual.
There will be an oral examination.
Reading list
A. Heaton, “An introduction to industrial Chemistry”, Blackie Academic & Professional (Chapman&Hall), 3rd ed.
Peters M.S., Timmerhaus K.D., “Plant Design and Economics for chemical engineers”, McGraw-Hill Intern.
Handouts and lecture notes.